The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. Theresa May – Boris Johnson`s predecessor in Downing Street – has repeatedly failed to pass her Brexit deal by MPs, leading to her resignation as prime minister. Brexit: the EU`s ultimatum to Britain for changes to the withdrawal agreement But the government rejected that request and argued that the bill`s measures were necessary to protect the integrity of the UK and the peace process in Northern Ireland. Mr Johnson said the law would protect jobs and growth – and was a “massively revolting act” that would constitute a “very significant transfer of power and sovereignty” to Scotland and Wales. It was signed “assuming that further agreements could be reached to clarify these aspects,” the spokesman added. On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.  That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratification of the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 31 January 2020, at 11 .m GMT. Not surprisingly, the bill clarified its third reading in the House of Commons by a majority of 99 votes. The 330 votes for were conservative.
But Irish Foreign Secretary Simon Coveney said the UK would “decide” to adopt legally binding commitments if the law is passed and rejected as “totally false,” saying the withdrawal agreement is a threat to its territorial integrity and the peace process in Northern Ireland. The Financial Times said the bill would “eliminate” the legal force of the withdrawal agreement reached less than a year ago between the UK and the EU in areas such as state aid and Customs in Northern Ireland. And a Conservative MP has proposed a change in the law that would affect trade between Britain and Northern Ireland. The UK government says the EU is threatening not to put the UK on the list. And because, under the EU withdrawal agreement, Northern Ireland will remain within EU internal market rules and the rest of the UK is not, it could mean that no food imports from Britain will be imported into Northern Ireland.